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Codebase Structure

├── docker                 - Ludwig Docker images
├── examples               - Configs demonstrating Ludwig on various tasks
├── ludwig                 - Ludwig library source code
│   ├── automl             - Configurations, defaults, and utilities for AutoML
│   ├── backend            - Execution backends (local, horovod, ray)
│   ├── benchmarking       - Performance benchmarks for training and hyperopt
│   ├── combiners          - Combiners used in ECD models
│   ├── contribs           - 3rd-party integrations (MLFlow, WandB, Comet)
│   ├── data               - Data loading, pre/postprocessing, sampling
│   ├── datasets           - Ludwig Dataset Zoo: API to download pre-configured datasets.
│   ├── decoders           - Output feature decoders
│   ├── encoders           - Input feature encoders
│   ├── explain            - Utilities for explaining model predictions
│   ├── features           - Implementations of feature types
│   ├── hyperopt
│   ├── models             - Implementations of ECD, trainer, predictor.
│   ├── modules            - Torch modules including layers, metrics, and losses
│   ├── profiling          - Dataset profiles
│   ├── schema             - The complete schema of the ludwig config.yaml
│   ├── trainers
│   ├── utils              - Various internal utilities used by ludwig python modules
│   ├──             - Entry point for python API. Declares LudwigModel.
│   ├── - Provides @PublicAPI, @DevelopAPI annotation decorators
│   └──             - ludwig command-line tool
└── tests
    ├── integration_tests  - End-to-end tests of Ludwig workflows
    └── ludwig             - Unit tests. Subdirectories match ludwig/ structure

The codebase is organized in a modular, datatype / feature centric way. Adding a feature for a new datatype can be done with minimal edits to existing code:

  1. Add a module implementing the new feature
  2. Import it in the appropriate registry file i.e. ludwig/features/
  3. Add the new module to the intended registries i.e. input_type_registry

All datatype-specific logic lives in the corresponding feature module, all of which are under ludwig/features/.


Feature classes provide raw data preprocessing logic specific to each data type in datatype mixin classes, i.e. BinaryFeatureMixin, NumberFeatureMixin, CategoryFeatureMixin. Feature mixins contain data preprocessing functions to obtain feature metadata (get_feature_meta, one-time dataset-wide operations to collect things like min, max, average, vocabulary, etc.) and to transform raw data into tensors using the previously calculated metadata (add_feature_data, which usually work on a dataset row basis).

Output features also contain datatype-specific logic to compute data postprocessing, to transform model predictions back into data space, and output metrics such as loss or accuracy.

Model Architectures

Encoders and decoders are modularized as well (they are under ludwig/encoders/ and ludwig/decoders/ respectively) so that they can be used by multiple features. For example sequence encoders are shared by text, sequence, and timeseries features.

Various model architecture components which can be reused are also split into dedicated modules (i.e. convolutional modules, fully connected layers, attention, etc.) which are available in ludwig/modules/.

Training and Inference

The training logic resides in ludwig/trainers/ which initializes a training session, feeds the data, and executes the training loop. Prediction logic including batch prediction and evaluation resides in ludwig/models/

Ludwig CLI

The command line interface is managed by the ludwig/ script, which imports the other scripts in the ludwig/ top-level directory which perform various sub-commands (experiment, evaluate, export, visualize, etc.).

The programmatic interface (which is also used by the CLI commands) is available in the ludwig/


All test code is in the tests/ directory. The tests/integration_tests/ subdirectory contains test cases which aim to provide end-to-end test coverage of all workflows provided by Ludwig.

The tests/ludwig/ directory contains unit tests, organized in a subdirectory tree parallel to the ludwig/ source tree. For more details on testing, see Style Guidelines and Tests.


Hyperparameter optimization logic is implemented in the scripts in the ludwig/hyperopt/ package.

The ludwig/utils/ package contains various internal utilities used by ludwig python modules.

Finally the ludwig/contrib/ packages contains user contributed code that integrates with external libraries.